CONTEXT: International cargo shipments currently suffer from the operational inefficiencies from burdensome document processing at all stages of the supply chain, as well as unreliable monitoring of cargo conditions via sensors.
• Non-secure sensors
• Data is stored in silos that do not communicate with each other
LACK OF TRUST AND TRANSPARENCY:
• Tampering with sensors can inhibit identification of the liable party in the case of disputes over cargo
• Control over information allows to deliberately alter publicly disclosed data for their own benefit
Crypto hardware gets connected to any sensor which transmits real-time cargo information to the blockchain.
• Machine integrity: the storage of the private key "off the bus” prevents tampering with device
• Machine identity: securely connected to the blockchain, generates a superior unique digital identity
• Transmits encrypted cargo status data in real-time to distributed blockchain database
•Improved co-operation through dispute prevention and resolution between partners and LSPs
Paper documents represent certificates of ownership and grant access to container.
COSTS AND UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS:
• Administrative burden of the cargo documentation processing can be up to 20% of the transportation costs
• Paper documents are easy to manipulate and forge
• Crypto hardware gets securely embedded into a padlock
• C rypto tag gets securely attached to the certificate of ownership
• Enables reliable ownership certification of the container as well as transfer of the ownership of contents (e.g. trade) whilst container is in transit
• The records of conditions present at the time of opening of container are also registered on the blockchain (GPS location, time, etc.)
•Improved co-operation through dispute prevention and resolution be tween partners and LSPs
The crypto hardware gets embedded into the temperature sensor. Immediately after, it gets provisioned* and attested** on the blockchain with relevant metadata.
The temperature of the container is monitored during the whole supply chain. Trusted IoT devices sign environmental conditions, arrival events, and transfer of custody events, and money flows can be automated.
All stakeholders in the supply chain have instant access to monitoring conditions. If at any point in the chain the temperature deviates from a set degree celsius, the party responsible for the container at that time is held accountable for all losses.
The crypto hardware gets embedded into the padlock. Immediately after, it gets provisioned* and attested** with relevant metadata and conditions under which it can be opened (GPS locations, time, etc.), on the blockchain.
The crypto tag gets attached to the certificate of ownership and then provisioned* and attested** with relevant metadata.
A multi-signature transaction links the padlock and the certificate of ownership on the blockchain.
At destination, the certificate of ownership acts as a “key” to the freight and enables its owner with legitimate access to the cargo.
*Process by which the key pairs are created. **Process by which the public key of the crypto tag is registered on the blockchain of choice.
The attestation also includes an update according to any smart contract that might have been set up between the parties involved in order to guarantee certain processes for their IoT case.